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Diana, Princess of Wales

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Princess of Wales; Duchess of Rothesay
Spouse Charles, Prince of Wales
(29 July 1981, div. 1996)[1]
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
Prince Harry of Wales
Full name
Diana Frances Spencer[N 1]
Father John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer
Mother Frances Shand Kydd
Born 1 July 1961(1961-07-01)
Park House, Sandringham, Norfolk
Died 31 August 1997(1997-08-31) (aged 36)
Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France
Burial Althorp, Northamptonshire
Diana, Princess of Wales (Diana Frances;[N 1]née Spencer; 1 July 1961 – 31 August 1997) was a member of the British royal family and an international personality of the late 20th century as the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, whom she married on 29 July 1981. The wedding, which was held at St. Paul's Cathedral, was televised and watched by a global audience of over 750 million people. The marriage produced two sons: Princes William and Harry,[3] currently second and third in line to the thrones of the 16 Commonwealth realms, respectively.
A public figure from the announcement of her engagement to Prince Charles, Diana was born into an old, aristocratic English family with royal ancestry, and remained the focus of worldwide media scrutiny before, during and after her marriage, which ended in divorce on 28 August 1996. This media attention continued following her death in a car crash in Paris on 31 August 1997, and in the subsequent display of public mourning a week later. Diana also received recognition for her charity work and for her support of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. From 1989, she was the president of Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children.



[edit] Early life

Diana Spencer was born at Park House, Sandringham, in Norfolk, England, the youngest of three daughters of John Spencer, Viscount Althorp (later the 8th Earl Spencer) and his first wife Frances Spencer, Viscountess Althorp (formerly the Honourable Frances Burke Roche, and later Frances Shand Kydd). Her father was of English descent and counted the 1st Duke of Marlborough among his ancestors. Her mother, who was of English and Irish descent, was a daughter of the 4th Baron Fermoy. Diana had two older sisters, Sarah and Jane, and a younger brother, Charles. She was baptised on 30 August 1961 at St Mary Magdalene Church by the Rt Revd Percy Herbert (rector of the church and former Bishop of Norwich and Blackburn), and her godparents were: the Lady Mary Colman; Mr John Floyd (the chairman of Christie's); Mrs William Fox; Mr Alexander Gilmour; and Mrs Michael Pratt.[4]
Diana was only seven years old when her parents were unexpectedly divorced, after much acrimony and as a result of her mother having an affair with a married man. Initially, Frances took Diana to live in an apartment in London's Knightsbridge, where Diana attended a local day school. However, Lord Spencer gained custody of Diana after a court battle for which Frances' mother, the Baroness Fermoy, denounced her own daughter as being an unfit mother. Shortly afterwards, following the divorce of her companion Peter Shand Kydd from his wife, Frances married him and moved to the island of Seil on the west coast of Scotland. Henceforth, Diana was raised by her father, but did often visit her mother. In 1973, Lord Spencer began a relationship with then married Raine, Countess of Dartmouth, the only daughter of Alexander McCorquodale and Barbara Cartland. They were married at Caxton Hall, London, on 14 July 1976. Neither of Diana's parents had any children from their second marriages.

[edit] Royal descent

On her father's side, she was a descendant of King Charles II of England through four illegitimate sons:
She was also a descendant of King James II of England through an illegitimate daughter, Henrietta FitzJames, by his mistress Arabella Churchill. On her mother's side, Diana was Irish and Scottish, as well as a descendant of American heiress Frances Work, her mother's grandmother and namesake, from whom the considerable Roche fortune was derived.[citation needed]
The Spencers began as untitled farmers but eventually became close to the British Royal Family for centuries, rising in royal favour during the 17th century, though Diana's branch of the family did not receive its earldom until the late 18th century, when John Spencer, 1st Earl Spencer received the title in 1765. Diana's maternal grandmother, Ruth, Lady Fermoy, was a long-time friend and a lady-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother. Her father had served as an equerry to King George VI and to Queen Elizabeth II.

[edit] Education

Coleherne Court, London (left)
Diana was first educated at Silfield School, Kings Lynn, Norfolk, then at Riddlesworth Hall in Norfolk, and at West Heath Girls' School (later reorganised as The New School at West Heath) in Sevenoaks, Kent, where she was regarded as a poor student, having attempted and failed all of her O-levels twice.[5] However, she showed a particular talent for music as an accomplished pianist.[6] Her outstanding community spirit was recognised with an award from West Heath. In 1977, at the age of 16, she left West Heath and briefly attended Institut Alpin Videmanette, a finishing school in Rougemont, Switzerland. At about that time, she first met her future husband, who was then dating her eldest sister, Lady Sarah. Diana reportedly excelled in swimming and diving, and longed to be a professional ballerina with the Royal Ballet. She studied ballet for a time, but then grew to 5'10", far too tall for the profession.
Diana moved to London before she turned seventeen, living in her mother's flat, as her mother then spent most of the year in Scotland. Soon afterwards, an apartment was purchased for £50,000 as an 18th birthday present, at Coleherne Court in Earls Court. She lived there until 1981 with three flatmates.
In London she took an advanced cooking course at her mother's suggestion, although she never became an adroit cook, and worked first as a dance instructor for youth, until a skiing accident caused her to miss three months of work. She then found employment as a playgroup (pre-preschool) assistant, did some cleaning work for her sister Sarah and several of her friends, and worked as a hostess at parties. Diana also spent time working as a nanny for an American family living in London.[7]

[edit] Relationship

Prince Charles, Diana and Sandro Pertini
Prince Charles had previously been linked to Diana's elder sister Sarah, and in his early thirties he was under increasing pressure to marry. Under the Act of Settlement 1701, royals forfeit their succession rights to the Throne if they marry "papists" (Roman Catholics). Diana's Church of England faith, native Englishness, and lack of an obvious "past" appeared to render her a suitable royal bride both legally and socially.
Prince Charles had known Diana for several years, but he first took a serious interest in her as a potential bride during the summer of 1980, when they were guests at a country weekend, where she watched him play polo. The relationship developed as he invited her for a sailing weekend to Cowes aboard the royal yacht Britannia, followed by an invitation to Balmoral (the Royal Family's Scottish residence) to meet his family. There, Diana was well received by Queen Elizabeth II, by Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and by the Queen Mother. The couple subsequently courted in London. The Prince proposed on 6 February 1981, and Diana accepted, but their engagement was kept secret for the next few weeks.[8]

[edit] Engagement and wedding

Their engagement became official on 24 February 1981, after Diana selected a large £30,000 ring, £85,700 in today's terms, consisting of 14 diamonds surrounding a sapphire, similar to her mother's engagement ring.[9] The ring was made by the then crown jewellers Garrard but, unusually for a member of the Royal Family, the ring was not unique and was, at the time, featured in Garrard's jewellery collection. The ring was later used in 2010 as the engagement ring of Kate Middleton, the wife of Diana's elder son Prince William.[10]
Twenty-year-old Diana became The Princess of Wales when she married Charles on 29 July 1981 at St Paul's Cathedral, which offered more seating than Westminster Abbey, generally used for royal nuptials. It was widely billed as a "fairytale wedding," watched by a global television audience of 750 million while 600,000 people lined the streets to catch a glimpse of Diana en route to the ceremony.[9][11] At the altar Diana accidentally reversed the order of Charles's first two names, saying Philip Charles Arthur George instead.[12] She did not say that she would "obey" him; that traditional vow was left out at the couple's request, which caused some comment at the time.[13] Diana wore a dress valued at £9000 with a 25-foot (8-metre) train.[14] The couple's wedding cake was created by Belgian pastry chef S. G. Sender, who was known as the "cakemaker to the kings."[15]

[edit] Children

On 5 November 1981, Diana's first pregnancy was officially announced, and she frankly discussed her pregnancy with members of the press corps.[16] In the private Lindo Wing of St. Mary's Hospital, Paddington, on 21 June 1982, Diana gave birth to her and Prince Charles's first son and heir, Prince William.[17] Amidst some media criticism, she decided to take William, still a baby, on her first major tours of Australia and New Zealand, but the decision was popularly applauded. By her own admission, Diana had not initially intended to take William until it was suggested by Malcolm Fraser, the Australian prime minister.[18]
A second son, Henry Charles Albert David, was born about two years after William, on 15 September 1984.[19] Diana asserted that she and Prince Charles were closest during her pregnancy with "Harry", as the younger prince was known. She was aware their second child was a boy, but did not share the knowledge with anyone else, including Prince Charles.[20]
She was regarded by a biographer as a devoted and demonstrative mother.[21] She rarely deferred to Prince Charles or to the Royal Family, and was often intransigent when it came to the children. She chose their first given names, dismissed a royal family nanny and engaged one of her own choosing, selected their schools and clothing, planned their outings and took them to school herself as often as her schedule permitted. She also negotiated her public duties around their timetables.[21]

[edit] Charity work

Though in 1983 she confided in the then-Premier of Newfoundland, Brian Peckford: "I am finding it very difficult to cope with the pressures of being Princess of Wales, but I am learning to cope,"[22] from the mid-1980s, the Princess of Wales became increasingly associated with numerous charities. As Princess of Wales she was expected to visit hospitals, schools, etc., in the 20th-century model of royal patronage. Diana developed an intense interest in serious illnesses and health-related matters outside the purview of traditional royal involvement, including AIDS and leprosy. In addition, the Princess was the patroness of charities and organisations working with the homeless, youth, drug addicts and the elderly. From 1989, she was President of Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children.
During her final year, Diana lent highly visible support to the International Campaign to Ban Landmines, a campaign that went on to win the Nobel Peace Prize in 1997 after her death.[23]

[edit] Problems and separation

From left to right, Prince Charles and the Princess of Wales, the United States First Lady Nancy Reagan, and United States President Ronald Reagan in November 1985.
During the early 1990s, the marriage of Diana and Charles fell apart, an event at first suppressed, then sensationalised, by the world media. Both the Prince and Princess of Wales allegedly spoke to the press through friends, each blaming the other for the marriage's demise.
The chronology of the break-up[24] identifies reported difficulties between Charles and Diana as early as 1985. During 1986 Diana began an affair with Major James Hewitt and Prince Charles turned to his former girlfriend, Camilla Shand, who had become Camilla Parker-Bowles, wife of Andrew Parker-Bowles. These affairs were exposed in May 1992 with the publication of Diana: Her True Story, by Andrew Morton. The book, which also laid bare Diana's allegedly suicidal unhappiness, caused a media storm. This publication was followed during 1992 and 1993 by leaked tapes of telephone conversations which negatively reflected on both the royal antagonists. Transcripts of taped intimate conversations between Diana and James Gilbey were published by the Sun newspaper in Britain in August 1992. The article's title, "Squidgygate", referenced Gilbey's affectionate nickname for Diana. Next to surface, in November 1992, were the leaked "Camillagate" tapes, intimate exchanges between Charles and Camilla, published in Today and the Mirror newspapers.
In the meantime, rumours had begun to surface about Diana's relationship with James Hewitt, her former riding instructor. These would be brought into the open by the publication in 1994 of Princess in Love.
In December 1992, Prime Minister John Major announced the Wales's "amicable separation" to the House of Commons,[25] and the full Camillagate transcript was published a month later in the newspapers, in January 1993. On 3 December 1993, Diana announced her withdrawal from public life.[26] Charles sought public understanding via a televised interview with Jonathan Dimbleby on 29 June 1994. In this he confirmed his own extramarital affair with Camilla, saying that he had only rekindled their association in 1986, after his marriage to the Princess of Wales had "irretrievably broken down."[27][28]
While she blamed Camilla Parker-Bowles for her marital troubles due to her previous relationship with Charles, Diana at some point began to believe Charles had other affairs. In October 1993 Diana wrote to a friend that she believed her husband was now in love with Tiggy Legge-Bourke and wanted to marry her.[29] Legge-Bourke had been hired by Prince Charles as a young companion for his sons while they were in his care, and Diana was extremely resentful of Legge-Bourke and her relationship with the young princes.

[edit] Divorce

Diana at the Cannes film festival in 1987
Diana was interviewed in a BBC Panorama interview[30] with journalist Martin Bashir, broadcast on 20 November 1995. In it, Diana asserted of Hewitt, "Yes, I loved him. Yes, I adored him." Of Camilla, she claimed "There were three of us in this marriage." For herself, she said "I'd like to be a queen of people's hearts." On Charles's suitability for kingship, she said: "Because I know the character I would think that the top job, as I call it, would bring enormous limitations to him, and I don't know whether he could adapt to that."[31]
In December 1995, the Queen asked Charles and Diana for "an early divorce," as a direct result of Diana's Panorama interview.[32] This followed shortly after Diana's accusation that Tiggy Legge-Bourke had aborted Charles's child, after which Legge-Bourke instructed Peter Carter-Ruck to demand an apology.[32] Two days before this story broke, Diana's secretary Patrick Jephson resigned, later writing Diana had "exulted in accusing Legge-Bourke of having had an abortion".[33]
On 20 December 1995, Buckingham Palace publicly announced the Queen had sent letters to Charles and Diana advising them to divorce. The Queen's move was backed by the Prime Minister and by senior Privy Councillors, and, according to the BBC, was decided after two weeks of talks.[34] Prince Charles immediately agreed with the suggestion. In February Diana announced her agreement after negotiations with Prince Charles and representatives of the Queen, irritating Buckingham Palace by issuing her own announcement of a divorce agreement and its terms.
The divorce was finalised on 28 August 1996.[26]
Diana received a lump sum settlement of around £17 million along with a clause standard in royal divorces preventing her from discussing the details.[35]
Days before the decree absolute of divorce, Letters Patent were issued with general rules to regulate royal titles after divorce. In accordance, as she was no longer married to the Prince of Wales, Diana lost the style Her Royal Highness and instead was styled Diana, Princess of Wales.[N 2] Buckingham Palace issued a press release on the day of the decree absolute of divorce was issued, announcing Diana's change of title, but made it clear that Diana continued to be a British princess.
Almost a year before, according to Tina Brown, Prince Philip had warned Diana: "If you don't behave, my girl, we'll take your title away." Diana is alleged to have replied: "My title is a lot older than yours, Philip," implying that her own family was older and more aristocratic than the House of Windsor.[36]
Buckingham Palace stated that Diana was still a member of the Royal Family, as she was the mother of the second- and third-in-line to the throne. This was confirmed by the Deputy Coroner of the Queen's Household, Baroness Butler-Sloss, after a pre-hearing on 8 January 2007: "I am satisfied that at her death, Diana, Princess of Wales continued to be considered as a member of the Royal Household."[37] This appears to have been confirmed in the High Court judicial review matter of Al Fayed & Ors v Butler-Sloss.[38] In that case, three High Court judges accepted submissions that the "very name ‘Coroner to the Queen’s Household’ gave the appearance of partiality in the context of inquests into the deaths of two people, one of whom was a member of the Family and the other was not."[38]

[edit] Personal life after divorce

After the divorce, Diana retained her double apartment on the north side of Kensington Palace, which she had shared with Prince Charles since the first year of their marriage, and it remained her home until her death.
Diana dated the respected heart surgeon Hasnat Khan, from Jhelum, Pakistan, who was called "the love of her life" after her death by many of her closest friends,[39] for almost two years, before Khan ended the relationship.[40][41] Khan was intensely private and the relationship was conducted in secrecy, with Diana lying to members of the press who questioned her about it. Khan was from a traditional Pakistani family who expected him to marry from a related Muslim clan, and their differences, not only religion, became too much for Khan. According to Khan's testimonial at the inquest for her death, it was Diana herself, not Khan, who ended their relationship in a late-night meeting in Hyde Park, which adjoins the grounds of Kensington Palace, in June 1997.
Within a month Diana had begun dating Dodi Al-Fayed, son of her host that summer, Mohamed Al-Fayed. Diana had considered taking her sons that summer on a holiday to the Hamptons on Long Island, New York, but security officials had prevented it. After deciding against a trip to Thailand, she accepted Fayed's invitation to join his family on the south of France, where his compound and large security detail would not cause concern to the Royal Protection squad. Mohamed Al-Fayed bought a multi-million pound yacht on which to entertain the princess and her sons.

[edit] Landmines

In January 1997, pictures of the Princess touring an Angolan minefield in a ballistic helmet and flak jacket were seen worldwide. It was during this campaign that some accused the Princess of meddling in politics and declared her a 'loose cannon.'[42] In August 1997, just days before her death, she visited Bosnia with Jerry White and Ken Rutherford of the Landmine Survivors Network.[43] Her interest in landmines was focused on the injuries they create, often to children, long after a conflict is over.
She is believed to have influenced the signing, though only after her death, of the Ottawa Treaty, which created an international ban on the use of anti-personnel landmines.[44] Introducing the Second Reading of the Landmines Bill 1998 to the British House of Commons, the Foreign Secretary, Robin Cook, paid tribute to Diana's work on landmines:
All Honourable Members will be aware from their postbags of the immense contribution made by Diana, Princess of Wales to bringing home to many of our constituents the human costs of landmines. The best way in which to record our appreciation of her work, and the work of NGOs that have campaigned against landmines, is to pass the Bill, and to pave the way towards a global ban on landmines.[45]
The United Nations appealed to the nations which produced and stockpiled the largest numbers of landmines (United States, China, India, North Korea, Pakistan, and Russia) to sign the Ottawa Treaty forbidding their production and use, for which Diana had campaigned. Carol Bellamy, Executive Director of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), said that landmines remained "a deadly attraction for children, whose innate curiosity and need for play often lure them directly into harm's way".[46]

[edit] Death

Entrance to the Alma Tunnel in Paris, where Diana was fatally injured
On 31 August 1997, Diana was fatally injured in a car crash in the Pont de l'Alma road tunnel in Paris, which also caused the deaths of her boyfriend, Dodi Fayed and their driver, Henri Paul, acting security manager of the Hôtel Ritz Paris. Millions of people watched the princess's funeral.[47]

[edit] Conspiracy theories and inquest

The initial French judicial investigation concluded that the accident was caused by Henri Paul's drunken loss of control.[48] From February 1999, Dodi's father, Mohamed Al-Fayed (the owner of the Paris Ritz, for which Paul had worked) maintained that the crash had been planned,[49] accusing MI6 as well as Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.[50] Inquests in London during 2004 and 2007[51] finally attributed the accident to grossly negligent driving by Henri Paul and to the pursuing paparazzi.[52] The following day Al-Fayed announced he would end his 10-year campaign for the sake of the late Princess of Wales's children.

[edit] Tribute, funeral, and burial

Diana's funeral cortege. Her coffin was transported on a gun carriage
The sudden and unexpected death of a very popular royal figure brought statements from senior figures worldwide and many tributes by members of the public. People left public offerings of flowers, candles, cards and personal messages outside Kensington Palace for many months.
Diana's funeral took place in Westminster Abbey on 6 September 1997. The previous day Queen Elizabeth II had paid tribute to her in a live television broadcast.[53] Her sons, the Princes William and Harry, walked in the funeral procession behind her coffin, along with the Prince of Wales and the Duke of Edinburgh, and with Diana's brother, Charles Spencer, 9th Earl Spencer.

[edit] Memorials

The first of two memorials to Diana, Princess of Wales, and Dodi Al-Fayed in Harrods
"Innocent Victims", the second of two memorials in Harrods.
Immediately after her death, many sites around the world became briefly ad hoc memorials to Diana, where the public left flowers and other tributes. The largest was outside the gates of Kensington Palace. Permanent memorials include:
In addition, there are two memorials inside Harrods department store, at the time owned by Dodi Al-Fayed's father Mohamed Al-Fayed, in London. The first memorial consists of photos of the two behind a pyramid-shaped display that holds a wine glass still smudged with lipstick from Diana's last dinner as well as an 'engagement' ring Dodi purchased the day before they died.[54] The second, unveiled in 2005 and titled "Innocent Victims", is a bronze statue of the two dancing on a beach beneath the wings of an albatross.[55] There is an unofficial memorial in Paris, Place de l'Alma: it is the flame of liberty, erected in 1999.

[edit] Memorabilia

Following Diana's death, the Diana Memorial Fund was granted intellectual property rights over her image.[56] In 1998, after refusing the Franklin Mint an official license to produce Diana merchandise, the fund sued the company, accusing it of illegally selling Diana dolls, plates and jewellery.[57] In California, where the initial case was tried, a suit to preserve the right of publicity may be filed on behalf of a dead person, but only if that person is a Californian. The Memorial Fund therefore filed the lawsuit on behalf of the estate and, upon losing the case, were required to pay the Franklin Mint's legal costs of £3 million which, combined with other fees, caused the Memorial Fund to freeze their grants to charities.[58]
In 1998, Azermarka issued the postage stamps with both Azeri and English captions, commemorating Diana. The English text reads "Diana, Princess of Wales. The Princess that captured people's hearts".
In 2003, the Franklin Mint counter-sued; the case was eventually settled in 2004, with the fund agreeing to an out-of-court settlement, which was donated to mutually agreed charitable causes.[59]
Today, pursuant to this lawsuit, two California companies continue to sell Diana memorabilia without the need for any permission from Diana's estate: the Franklin Mint and Princess Ring LLC.

[edit] Diana in contemporary art

Diana has been depicted in contemporary art since her death. Some of the artworks have referenced the conspiracy theories, as well as paying tribute to Diana's compassion and acknowledging her perceived victimhood.
In July 1999, Tracey Emin created a number of monoprint drawings featuring textual references about Diana's public and private life, for Temple of Diana, a themed exhibition at The Blue Gallery, London. Works such as They Wanted You To Be Destroyed (1999)[60] related to Diana's bulimia, while others included affectionate texts such as Love Was On Your Side and Diana's Dress with puffy sleeves. Another text praised her selflessness - The things you did to help other people, showing Diana in protective clothing walking through a minefield in Angola - while another referenced the conspiracy theories. Of her drawings, Emin maintained "They're quite sentimental . . . and there's nothing cynical about it whatsoever."[61]
In 2005 Martin Sastre premiered during the Venice Biennial the film Diana: The Rose Conspiracy. This fictional work starts with the world discovering Diana alive and enjoying a happy undercover new life in a dangerous favela on the outskirts of Montevideo. Shot on a genuine Uruguayan slum and using a Diana impersonator from Sao Paulo, the film was selected among the Venice Biennial's best works by the Italian Art Critics Association.[62]
In 2007, following an earlier series referencing the conspiracy theories, Stella Vine created a series of Diana paintings for her first major solo exhibition at Modern Art Oxford gallery.[63] Vine intended to portray Diana's combined strength and vulnerability as well as her closeness to her two sons.[64] The works, all completed in 2007, included Diana branches, Diana family picnic, Diana veil and Diana pram, which incorporated the quotation "I vow to thee my country".[65] Immodesty Blaize said she had been entranced by Diana crash, finding it "by turns horrifying, bemusing and funny".[66] Vine asserted her own abiding attraction to "the beauty and the tragedy of Diana’s life".[64]

[edit] Later events

On 13 July 2006 Italian magazine Chi published photographs showing the princess amid the wreckage of the car crash,[67] despite an unofficial blackout on such photographs being published.[68][N 3] The editor of Chi defended his decision by saying that he published the photographs simply because they had not been previously seen, and that he felt the images are not disrespectful to the memory of the Princess.[68] Fresh controversy arose over the issue of these photographs when Britain's Channel 4 broadcast them during a documentary in June 2007.[citation needed]
1 July 2007 marked a concert at Wembley Stadium. The event, organised by the Princes William and Harry, celebrated the 46th anniversary of their mother's birth and occurred a few weeks before the 10th anniversary of her death on 31 August.
The 2007 docudrama Diana: Last Days of a Princess details the final two months of her life.
On an October 2007 episode of The Chaser's War on Everything, Andrew Hansen mocked Diana in his "Eulogy Song", which immediately created considerable controversy in the Australian media.[69]

[edit] Contemporary opinions

John Travolta and Diana dancing at the White House
From her engagement to the Prince of Wales in 1981 until her death in 1997, Diana was an iconic presence on the world stage, often described as the world's most photographed woman. She was noted for her compassion,[70] style, charisma, and high-profile charity work, as well as her difficult marriage to Prince Charles.
Diana was revealed to be a major source behind Andrew Morton's Diana: Her True Story, which had portrayed her as being wronged by the House of Windsor. Morton instanced Diana's claim that she attempted suicide while pregnant by falling down a series of stairs and that Charles had left her to go riding. Tina Brown opined that it was not a suicide attempt because she would not intentionally have tried to harm the unborn child.
Royal biographer Sarah Bradford commented, "The only cure for her (Diana's) suffering would have been the love of the Prince of Wales, which she so passionately desired, something which would always be denied her. His was the final rejection; the way in which he consistently denigrated her reduced her to despair."[71] Diana herself commented, "My husband made me feel inadequate in every possible way that each time I came up for air he pushed me down again ..."[71]
Diana herself admitted to struggling with depression, self injury, and bulimia, which recurred throughout her adult life. One biographer suggested that Diana suffered from borderline personality disorder.[72]
In 2007, Tina Brown wrote a biography about Diana as a "restless and demanding shopaholic who was obsessed with her public image" as well as being a "spiteful, manipulative, media-savvy neurotic." Brown also claims that Diana married Charles for his power and had a romantic relationship with Dodi Fayed to anger the royal family, with no intention of marrying him.

Jumat, 15 April 2011


peninggalan islam di indonesia II

A. Kerajaan Perlak
Perlak adalah kerajaan Islam tertua di Indonesia. Perlak adalah sebuah kerajaan dengan masa pemerintahan cukup panjang. Kerajaan yang berdiri pada tahun 840 ini berakhir pada tahun 1292 karena bergabung dengan Kerajaan Samudra Pasai. Sejak berdiri sampai bergabungnya Perlak dengan Samudrar Pasai, terdapat 19 orang raja yang memerintah. Raja yang pertama ialah Sultan Alaidin Saiyid Maulana Abdul Aziz Syah (225 – 249 H / 840 – 964 M). Sultan bernama asli Saiyid Abdul Aziz pada tanggal 1 Muhharam 225 H dinobatkan menjadi Sultan Kerajaan Perlak. Setelah pengangkatan ini, Bandar Perlak diubah menjadi Bandar Khalifah.
Kerajaan ini mengalami masa jaya pada masa pemerintahan Sultan Makhdum Alaidin Malik Muhammad Amin Syah II Johan Berdaulat (622-662 H/1225-1263 M).
Pada masa pemerintahannya, Kerajaan Perlak mengalami kemajuan pesat terutama dalam bidang pendidikan Islam dan perluasan dakwah Islamiah. Sultan mengawinkan dua putrinya: Putri Ganggang Sari (Putri Raihani) dengan Sultan Malikul Saleh dari Samudra Pasai serta Putri Ratna Kumala dengan Raja Tumasik (Singapura sekarang).
Perkawinan ini dengan parameswara Iskandar Syah yang kemudian bergelar Sultan Muhammad Syah.
Sultan Makhdum Alaidin Malik Muhammad Amin Syah II Johan Berdaulat kemudian digantikan oleh Sultan Makhdum Alaidin Malik Abdul Aziz Syah Johan Berdaulat (662-692 H/1263-1292 M). Inilah sultan terakhir Perlak. Setelah beliau wafat, Perlak disatukan dengan Kerajaan Samudra Pasai dengan raja Muhammad Malikul Dhahir yang adalah Putra Sultan Malikul Saleh dengan Putri Ganggang Sari.
Perlak merupakan kerajaan yang sudah maju. Hal ini terlihat dari adanya mata uang sendiri. Mata uang Perlak yang ditemukan terbuat dari emas (dirham), dari perak (kupang), dan dari tembaga atau kuningan.

B. Kerajaan Samudera Pasai

Kerajaan ini didirikan oleh Sultan Malik Al-saleh dan sekaligus sebagai raja pertama pada abad ke-13. Kerajaan Samudera Pasai terletak di sebelah utara Perlak di daerah Lhok Semawe sekarang (pantai timur Aceh).
Sebagai sebuah kerajaan, raja silih berganti memerintah di Samudra Pasai. Raja-raja yang pernah memerintah Samudra Pasai adalah seperti berikut.
(1) Sultan Malik Al-saleh berusaha meletakkan dasar-dasar kekuasaan Islam dan berusaha mengembangkan kerajaannya antara lain melalui perdagangan dan memperkuat angkatan perang. Samudra Pasai berkembang menjadi negara maritim yang kuat di Selat Malaka.
(2) Sultan Muhammad (Sultan Malik al Tahir I) yang memerintah sejak 1297-1326. Pada masa pemerintahannya Kerajaan Perlak kemudian disatukan dengan Kerajaan Samudra Pasai.
(3) Sultan Malik al Tahir II (1326 – 1348 M). Raja yang bernama asli Ahmad ini sangat teguh memegang ajaran Islam dan aktif menyiarkan Islam ke negeri-negeri sekitarnya. Akibatnya, Samudra Pasai berkembang sebagai pusat penyebaran Islam. Pada masa pemerintahannya, Samudra Pasai memiliki armada laut yang kuat sehingga para pedagang merasa aman singgah dan berdagang di sekitar Samudra Pasai. Namun, setelah muncul Kerajaan Malaka, Samudra Pasai mulai memudar. Pada tahun 1522 Samudra Pasai diduduki oleh Portugis. Keberadaan Samudra Pasai sebagai kerajaan maritim digantikan oleh Kerajaan Aceh yang muncul kemudian.
Catatan lain mengenai kerajaan ini dapat diketahui dari tulisan Ibnu Battuta, seorang pengelana dari Maroko. Menurut Battuta, pada tahun 1345, Samudera Pasai merupakan kerajaan dagang yang makmur. Banyak pedagang dari Jawa, Cina, dan India yang datang ke sana. Hal ini mengingat letak Samudera Pasai yang strategis di Selat Malaka. Mata uangnya uang emas yang disebur deureuham (dirham).
Di bidang agama, Samudera Pasai menjadi pusat studi Islam. Kerajaan ini menyiarkan Islam sampai ke Minangkabau, Jambi, Malaka, Jawa, bahkan ke Thailand. Dari Kerajaan Samudra Pasai inilah kader-kader Islam dipersiapkan untuk mengembangkan Islam ke berbagai daerah. Salah satunya ialah Fatahillah. Ia adalah putra Pasai yang kemudian menjadi panglima di Demak kemudian menjadi penguasa di Banten.

C. Kerajaan Aceh

Kerajaan Islam berikutnya di Sumatra ialah Kerajaan Aceh. Kerajaan yang didirikan oleh Sultan Ibrahim yang bergelar Ali Mughayat Syah (1514-1528), menjadi penting karena mundurnya Kerajaan Samudera Pasai dan berkembangnya Kerajaan Malaka.
Para pedagang kemudian lebih sering datang ke Aceh.
Pusat pemerintahan Kerajaan Aceh ada di Kutaraja (Banda Acah sekarang). Corak pemerintahan di Aceh terdiri atas dua sistem: pemerintahan sipil di bawah kaum bangsawan, disebut golongan teuku; dan pemerintahan atas dasar agama di bawah kaum ulama, disebut golongan tengku atau teungku.
Sebagai sebuah kerajaan, Aceh mengalami masa maju dan mundur. Aceh mengalami kemajuan pesat pada masa pemerintahan Sultan Iskandar Muda (1607- 1636). Pada masa pemerintahannya, Aceh mencapai zaman keemasan. Aceh bahkan dapat menguasai Johor, Pahang, Kedah, Perak di Semenanjung Melayu dan Indragiri, Pulau Bintan, dan Nias. Di samping itu, Iskandar Muda juga menyusun undang-undang tata pemerintahan yang disebut Adat Mahkota Alam.
Setelah Sultan Iskandar Muda, tidak ada lagi sultan yang mampu mengendalikan Aceh. Aceh mengalami kemunduran di bawah pimpinan Sultan Iskandar Thani (1636- 1641). Dia kemudian digantikan oleh permaisurinya, Putri Sri Alam Permaisuri (1641- 1675). Sejarah mencatat Aceh makin hari makin lemah akibat pertikaian antara golongan teuku dan teungku, serta antara golongan aliran syiah dan sunnah sal jama’ah. Akhirnya, Belanda berhasil menguasai Aceh pada tahun 1904.
Dalam bidang sosial, letaknya yang strategis di titik sentral jalur perdagangan internasional di Selat Malaka menjadikan Aceh makin ramai dikunjungi pedangang Islam.
Terjadilah asimilasi baik di bidang sosial maupun ekonomi. Dalam kehidupan bermasyarakat, terjadi perpaduan antara adat istiadat dan ajaran agama Islam. Pada sekitar abad ke-16 dan 17 terdapat empat orang ahli tasawuf di Aceh, yaitu Hamzah Fansuri, Syamsuddin as-Sumtrani, Nuruddin ar-Raniri, dan Abdurrauf dari Singkil.
Keempat ulama ini sangat berpengaruh bukan hanya di Aceh tetapi juga sampai ke Jawa.
Dalam kehidupan ekonomi, Aceh berkembang dengan pesat pada masa kejayaannya. Dengan menguasai daerah pantai barat dan timur Sumatra, Aceh menjadi kerajaan yang kaya akan sumber daya alam, seperti beras, emas, perak dan timah serta rempah-rempah.

D. Kerajaan Demak dan Kerajaan Pajang dengan Peninggalannya

Demak adalah kerajaan Islam pertama di Pulau Jawa. Kerajaan yang didirikan oleh Raden Patah ini pada awalnya adalah sebuah wilayah dengan nama Glagah atau Bintoro yang berada di bawah kekuasaan Majapahit. Majapahit mengalami kemunduran pada akhir abad ke-15. Kemunduran ini memberi peluang bagi Demak untuk berkembang menjadi kota besar dan pusat perdagangan. Dengan bantuan para ulama Walisongo, Demak berkembang menjadi pusat penyebaran agama Islam di Jawa dan wilayah timur Nusantara.
Sebagai kerajaan, Demak diperintah silih berganti oleh raja-raja. Demak didirikan oleh Raden Patah (1500-1518) yang bergelar Sultan Alam Akhbar al Fatah. Raden Patah sebenarnya adalah Pangeran Jimbun, putra raja Majapahit. Pada masa pemerintahannya, Demak berkembang pesat. Daerah kekuasaannya meliputi daerah Demak sendiri, Semarang, Tegal, Jepara dan sekitarnya, dan cukup berpengaruh di Palembang dan Jambi di Sumatera, serta beberapa wilayah di Kalimantan. Karena memiliki bandar-bandar penting seperti Jepara, Tuban, Sedayu, Gresik, Raden Patah memperkuat armada lautnya sehingga Demak berkembang menjadi negara maritim yang kuat. Dengan kekuatannya itu, Demak mencoba menyerang Portugis yang pada saat itu menguasai Malaka. Demak membantu Malaka karena kepentingan Demak turut terganggu dengan hadirnya Portugis di Malaka. Namun, serangan itu gagal.
Raden Patah kemudian digantikan oleh Adipati Unus (1518-1521). Walau ia tidak memerintah lama, tetapi namanya cukup terkenal sebagai panglima perang yang berani.
Ia berusaha membendung pengaruh Portugis jangan sampai meluas ke Jawa. Karena mati muda, Adipati Unus kemudian digantikan oleh adiknya, Sultan Trenggono (1521-1546). Di bawah pemerintahannya, Demak mengalami masa kejayaan. Trenggono berhasil membawa Demak memperluas wilayah kekuasaannya. Pada tahun 1522, pasukan Demak di bawah pimpinan Fatahillah menyerang Banten, Sunda Kelapa, dan Cirebon. Baru pada tahun 1527, Sunda Kelapa berhasil direbut. Dalam penyerangan ke Pasuruan pada tahun 1546, Sultan Trenggono gugur.
Sepeninggal Sultan Trenggono, Demak mengalami kemunduran. Terjadi perebutan kekuasaan antara Pangeran Sekar Sedolepen, saudara Sultan Trenggono yang seharusnya menjadi raja dan Sunan Prawoto, putra sulung Sultan Trenggono. Sunan Prawoto kemudian dikalahkan oleh Arya Penangsang, anak Pengeran Sekar Sedolepen.
Namun, Arya Penangsang pun kemudian dibunuh oleh Joko Tingkir, menantu Sultan Trenggono yang menjadi Adipati di Pajang. Joko Tingkir (1549-1587) yang kemudian bergelar Sultan Hadiwijaya memindahkan pusat Kerajaan Demak ke Pajang.
Kerajaannya kemudian dikenal dengan nama Kerajaan Pajang.
Sultan Hadiwijaya kemudian membalas jasa para pembantunya yang telah berjasa dalam pertempuran melawan Arya Penangsang. Mereka adalah Ki Ageng Pemanahan menerima hadiah berupa tanah di daerah Mataram (Alas Mentaok), Ki Penjawi dihadiahi wilayah di daerah Pati, dan keduanya sekaligus diangkat sebagai bupati di daerahnya masing-masing. Bupati Surabaya yang banyak berjasa menundukkan daerah-daerah di Jawa Timur diangkat sebagai wakil raja dengan daerah kekuasaan Sedayu, Gresik, Surabaya, dan Panarukan.
Ketika Sultan Hadiwijaya meninggal, beliau digantikan oleh putranya Sultan Benowo. Pada masa pemerintahannya, Arya Pangiri, anak dari Sultan Prawoto melakukan pemberontakan. Namun, pemberontakan tersebut dapat dipadamkan oleh Pangeran Benowo dengan bantuan Sutawijaya, anak angkat Sultan Hadiwijaya. Tahta Kerajaan Pajang kemudian diserahkan Pangeran Benowo kepada Sutawijaya. Sutawijaya kemudian memindahkan pusat Kerajaan Pajang ke Mataram.
Di bidang keagamaan, Raden Patah dan dibantu para wali, Demak tampil sebagai pusat penyebaran Islam. Raden Patah kemudian membangun sebuah masjid yang megah, yaitu Masjid Demak.
Dalam bidang perekonomian, Demak merupakan pelabuhan transito (penghubung) yang penting. Sebagai pusat perdagangan Demak memiliki pelabuhan-pelabuhan penting, seperti Jepara, Tuban, Sedayu, Gresik. Bandar-bandar tersebut menjadi penghubung daerah penghasil rempah-rempah dan pembelinya. Demak juga memiliki penghasilan besar dari hasil pertaniannya yang cukup besar. Akibatnya, perekonomian Demak berkembang degan pesat.

E. Kerajaan Mataram dan Peninggalannya

Sutawijaya yang mendapat limpahan Kerajaan Pajang dari Sutan Benowo kemudian memindahkan pusat pemerintahan ke daerah kekuasaan ayahnya, Ki Ageng Pemanahan, di Mataram. Sutawijaya kemudian menjadi raja Kerajaan Mataram dengan gelar Panembahan Senopati Ing Alaga Sayidin Panatagama.
Pemerintahan Panembahan Senopati (1586-1601) tidak berjalan dengan mulus karena diwarnai oleh pemberontakan-pemberontakan. Kerajaan yang berpusat di Kotagede (sebelah tenggara kota Yogyakarta sekarang) ini selalu terjadi perang untuk menundukkan para bupati yang ingin melepaskan diri dari kekuasaan Mataram, seperti Bupati Ponorogo, Madiun, Kediri, Pasuruan bahkan Demak. Namun, semua daerah itu dapat ditundukkan. Daerah yang terakhir dikuasainya ialah Surabaya dengan bantuan Sunan Giri.
Setelah Senopati wafat, putranya Mas Jolang (1601-1613) naik tahta dan bergelar Sultan Anyakrawati. Dia berhasil menguasai Kertosono, Kediri, dan Mojoagung. Ia wafat dalam pertempuran di daerah Krapyak sehingga kemudian dikenal dengan Pangeran Sedo Krapyak.
Mas Jolang kemudian digantikan oleh Mas Rangsang (1613-1645). Raja Mataram yang bergelar Sultan Agung Senopati ing Alogo Ngabdurracham ini kemudian lebih dikenal dengan nama Sultan Agung. Pada masa pemerintahannya, Mataram mencapai masa keemasan. Pusat pemerintahan dipindahkan ke Plered. Wilayah kekuasaannya meliputi Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, dan sebagian Jawa Barat. Sultan Agung bercita-cita mempersatukan Jawa. Karena merasa sebagai penerus Kerajaan Demak, Sultan Agung menganggap Banten adalah bagian dari Kerajaan Mataram. Namun, Banten tidak mau tunduk kepada Mataram. Sultan Agung kemudian berniat untuk merebut Banten.
Namun, niatnya itu terhambat karena ada VOC yang menguasai Sunda Kelapa. VOC juga tidak menyukai Mataram. Akibatnya, Sultan Agung harus berhadapan dulu dengan VOC. Sultan Agung dua kali berusaha menyerang VOC: tahun 1628 dan 1629.
Penyerangan tersebut tidak berhasil, tetapi dapat membendung pengaruh VOC di Jawa.
Sultan Agung membagi sistem pemerintahan Kerajaan Mataram seperti berikut.
(1) Kutanegara, daerah pusat keraton. Pelaksanaan pemerintahan dipegang oleh Patih Lebet (Patih Dalam) yang dibantu Wedana Lebet (Wedana Dalam).
(2) Negara Agung, daerah sekitar Kutanegara. Pelaksanaan pemerintahan dipegang Patih Jawi (Patih Luar) yang dibantu Wedana Jawi (Wedana Luar).
(3) Mancanegara, daerah di luar Negara Agung. Pelaksanaan pemerintahan dipegang oleh para Bupati.
(4) Pesisir, daerah pesisir. Pelaksanaan pemerintahan dipegang oleh para Bupati atau syahbandar.
Sultan Agung wafat pada tahun 1645 dan digantikan oleh Amangkurat I (1645-1677). Amangkurat I menjalin hubungan dengan Belanda. Pada masa pemerintahannya. Mataram diserang oleh Trunojaya dari Madura, tetapi dapat digagalkan karena dibantu Belanda.
Amangkurat I kemudian digantikan oleh Amangkurat II (1677-1703). Pada masa pemerintahannya, wilayah Kerajaan Mataram makin menyempit karena diambil oleh Belanda.
Setelah Amangkurat II, raja-raja yang memerintah Mataram sudah tidak lagi berkuasa penuh karena pengaruh Belanda yang sangat kuat. Bahkan pada tahun 1755, Mataram terpecah menjadi dua akibat Perjanjian Giyanti:
Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat (Kesultanan Yogyakarta) yang berpusat di Yogyakarta dengan raja Mangkubumi yang bergelar Hamengku Buwono I dan Kesuhunan Surakarta yang berpusat di Surakarta dengan raja Susuhunan Pakubuwono III. Dengan demikian, berakhirlah Kerajaan Mataram.
Kehidupan sosial ekonomi Mataram cukup maju. Sebagai kerajaan besar, Mataram maju hampir dalam segala bidang, pertanian, agama, budaya. Pada zaman Kerajaan Majapahit, muncul kebudayaan Kejawen, gabungan antara kebudayaan asli Jawa, Hindu, Buddha, dan Islam, misalnya upacara Grebeg, Sekaten. Karya kesusastraan yang terkenal adalah Sastra Gading karya Sultan Agung. Pada tahun 1633, Sultan Agung mengganti perhitungan tahun Hindu yang berdasarkan perhitungan matahari dengan tahun Islam yang berdasarkan perhitungan bulan.

F. Kerajaan Banten

Kerajaan yang terletak di barat Pulau Jawa ini pada awalnya merupakan bagian dari Kerajaan Demak. Banten direbut oleh pasukan Demak di bawah pimpinan Fatahillah. Fatahillah adalah menantu dari Syarif Hidayatullah. Syarif Hidayatullah adalah salah seorang wali yang diberi kekuasaan oleh Kerajaan Demak untuk memerintah di Cirebon. Syarif Hidayatullah memiliki 2 putra laki-laki, pangeran Pasarean dan Pangeran Sabakingkin. Pangeran Pasareaan berkuasa di Cirebon. Pada tahun 1522, Pangeran Saba Kingkin yang kemudian lebih dikenal dengan nama Hasanuddin diangkat menjadi Raja Banten.
Setelah Kerajaan Demak mengalami kemunduran, Banten kemudian melepaskan diri dari Demak. Berdirilah Kerajaan Banten dengan rajanya Sultan Hasanudin (1522- 1570). Pada masa pemerintahannya, pengaruh Banten sampai ke Lampung. Artinya, Bantenlah yang menguasai jalur perdagangan di Selat Sunda. Para pedagang dari Cina, Persia, Gujarat, Turki banyak yang mendatangi bandar-bandar di Banten. Kerajaan Banten berkembang menjadi pusat perdagangan selain karena letaknya sangat strategis, Banten juga didukung oleh beberapa faktor di antaranya jatuhnya Malaka ke tangan Portugis (1511) sehingga para pedagangmuslim berpindah jalur pelayarannya melalui Selat Sunda. Faktor lainnya, Banten merupakan penghasil lada dan beras, komoditi yang laku di pasaran dunia.
Sultan Hasanudin kemudian digantikan putranya, Pangeran Yusuf (1570-1580).
Pada masa pemerintahannya, Banten berhasil merebut Pajajaran dan Pakuan.
Pangeran Yusuf kemudian digantikan oleh Maulana Muhammad. Raja yang bergelar Kanjeng Ratu Banten ini baru berusia sembilan tahun ketika diangkat menjadi raja. Oleh sebab itu, dalam menjalankan roda pemerintahan, Maulana Muhammad dibantu oleh Mangkubumi. Dalam tahun 1595, dia memimpin ekspedisi menyerang Palembang. Dalam pertempuran itu, Maulana Muhammad gugur.
Maulana Muhammad kemudian digantikan oleh putranya Abu’lmufakhir yang baru berusia lima bulan. Dalam menjalankan roda pemerintahan, Abu’lmufakhir dibantu oleh Jayanegara. Abu’lmufakhir kemudian digantikan oleh Abu’ma’ali Ahmad Rahmatullah. Abu’ma’ali Ahmad Rahmatullah kemudian digantikan oleh Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa (1651-1692).
Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa menjadikan Banten sebagai sebuah kerajaan yang maju dengan pesat. Untuk membantunya, Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa pada tahun 1671 mengangkat purtanya, Sultan Abdulkahar, sebagi raja pembantu. Namun, sultan yang bergelar Sultan Haji berhubungan dengan Belanda. Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa yang tidak menyukai hal itu berusaha mengambil alih kontrol pemerintahan, tetapi tidak berhasil karena Sultan Haji didukung Belanda. Akhirnya, pecahlah perang saudara. Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa tertangkap dan dipenjarakan. Dengan demikian, lambat laun Banten mengalami kemunduran karena tersisih oleh Batavia yang berada di bawah kekuasaan Belanda.

G. Kerajaan Cirebon

Kerajaan yang terletak di perbatasan antara Jawa Barat dan Jawa Tengah didirikan oleh salah seorang anggota Walisongo, Sunan Gunung Jati dengan gelar Syarif Hidayatullah.
Syarif Hidayatullah membawa kemajuan bagi Cirebon. Ketika Demak mengirimkan pasukannya di bawah Fatahilah (Faletehan) untuk menyerang Portugis di Sunda Kelapa, Syarif Hidayatullah memberikan bantuan sepenuhnya. Bahkan pada tahun 1524, Fatahillah diambil menantu oleh Syarif Hidayatullah. Setelah Fatahillah berhasil mengusir Portugis dari Sunda Kelapa, Syarif Hidayatullah meminta Fatahillah untuk menjadi Bupati di Jayakarta.
Syarif Hidayatullah kemudian digantikan oleh putranya yang bernama Pangeran Pasarean. Inilah raja yang menurunkan raja-raja Cirebon selanjutnya.
Pada tahun 1679, Cirebon terpaksa dibagi dua, yaitu Kasepuhan dan Kanoman.
Dengan politik de vide at impera yang dilancarkan Belanda yang pada saat itu sudah berpengaruh di Cirebon, kasultanan Kanoman dibagi dua menjadi Kasultanan Kanoman dan Kacirebonan. Dengan demikian, kekuasaan Cirebon terbagi menjadi 3, yakni Kasepuhan, Kanoman, dan Kacirebonan. Cirebon berhasil dikuasai VOC pada akhir abad ke-17.

H. Kerajaan Gowa-Tallo

Kerajaan yang terletak di Sulawesi Selatan sebenarnya terdiri atas dua kerjaan:
Gowa dan Tallo. Kedua kerajaan ini kemudian bersatu. Raja Gowa, Daeng Manrabia, menjadi raja bergelar Sultan Alauddin dan Raja Tallo, Karaeng Mantoaya, menjadi perdana menteri bergelar Sultan Abdullah. Karena pusat pemerintahannya terdapat di Makassar, Kerajaan Gowa dan Tallo sering disebut sebagai Kerajaan Makassar.
Karena posisinya yang strategis di antara wilayah barat dan timur Nusantara, Kerajaan Gowa dan Tallo menjadi bandar utama untuk memasuki Indonesia Timur yang kaya rempah-rempah. Kerajaan Makassar memiliki pelaut-pelaut yang tangguh terutama dari daerah Bugis. Mereka inilah yang memperkuat barisan pertahanan laut Makassar.
Raja yang terkenal dari kerajaan ini ialah Sultan Hasanuddin (1653-1669).
Hasanuddin berhasil memperluas wilayah kekuasaan Makassar baik ke atas sampai ke Sumbawa dan sebagian Flores di selatan.
Karena merupakan bandar utama untuk memasuki Indonesia Timur, Hasanuddin bercita-cita menjadikan Makassar sebagai pusat kegiatan perdagangan di Indonesia bagian Timur. Hal ini merupakan ancaman bagi Belanda sehingga sering terjadi pertempuran dan perampokan terhadap armada Belanda. Belanda kemudian menyerang Makassar dengan bantuan Aru Palaka, raja Bone. Belanda berhasil memaksa Hasanuddin, Si Ayam Jantan dari Timur itu menyepakati Perjanjian Bongaya pada tahun 1667. Isi perjanjian itu ialah: Belanda mendapat monopoli dagang di Makassar, Belanda boleh mendirikan benteng di Makassar, Makassar harus melepaskan jajahannya, dan Aru Palaka harus diakui sebagai Raja Bone.
Sultan Hasanuddin kemudian digantikan oleh Mapasomba. Namun, Mapasomba tidak berkuasa lama karena Makassar kemudian dikuasai Belanda, bahkan seluruh Sulawesi Selatan.